Project researches mainly aim to: (1) Provide support to background of project products by collecting scientific and managerial information on digital issues, which is the continuation of the discussion of online security and healthy digital life that raises the project proposal; (2) Identify trends in efforts to overcome the problems positively about internet and mobile communication technologies, offering rich opportunities for entertainment, learning, creativity, socialization and exploration, thereby creating a broader basis throughout Europe; (3) Better understand the problems that children/youth face in digital age and the new skills they need through discussions about healthy digital life and online safety; (4) Discuss how to reduce risks encountered while interacting with digital technologies by detecting hazards; (5) Synthesis of relevant policy and curriculum outcomes through the panoramas from countries about issues where digital life can be source of concern and efforts to overcome them; (6) Find evidence on the relationship between healthy digital life and learning success; (7) Increase the knowledge of digital problems and make academic circulation available; (8) Produce solutions on new application requirements with possible policy and application changes.
The first research findings of HD-LIFE were presented in Erasmus International Academic Research Symposium held in Izmir on 5-6 April 2019 with the title: ‘School Community Members’ Digital Life Outlook: An Overview of Research Findings of HD-LIFE Project’. - PDF
The pedagogical and theoretical design of HD-LIFE short films was presented at the 3rd International EMI Entrepreneurship & Social Sciences Congress. The presentation, which was prepared by Hakan Aydın and Fikret Yazıcı and aimed to discuss the pedagogical and theoretical structure of the 5 short films within the framework of the planned achievements, was awarded as the best paper. - PDF
HD-LIFE’s HD Learning Content Management Database was presented under the title 'HD Learning Content Management Database as a Professional Development and Open Education Resource Service' on 23-27 October 2019 at the International Basic Education Congress (UTEK 2019) along with 13 national and international universities hosted by Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University Faculty of Education and Child Education Application and Research Center. - PDF
Was held in Barcelona University, Spain between 29 September and 03 October 2019. In the activity where 17 representatives from the consortium members were present; participants acquired a broader point of view related to digital problems that has became varied and turned out to be a global issue; in addition, the participants advanced their capabilities to a more useful and up to its point on the use of the outputs from the project.
It was held On 25 January 2019, in Kayseri Police House. The meeting was attended by representatives of Erciyes University, Kayseri Police Department, University of Cologne and Barcelona University on behalf of the Project Consortium. In the meeting, the agenda was to discuss following: explanations about Turkish National Agency's project management approach and implementation, project objectives, approach and expected results, methodological framework for the research activities and project visibility applications’ methodological framework.
It was held on 26 April 2019 at University of Cologne. Representatives attended the meeting from Erciyes University, Kayseri Security Directorate, Barcelona University and Köln University on behalf of the project consortium. In the meeting, the results of the research activities that had been carried out with a multiple methodological design to provide support data to the background information of the project products were discussed.
The European Commission's communication for European human rights, which is expressed as the new skills agenda for Europe, to work together to strengthen employability and competition, suggests ways to address the challenges faced by Europe. The aim is that everyone has the most important authority set for personal development, social inclusion, active citizenship and employment. The key components of the digital competence, which are among these competencies, are also summarized by the European Commission in 5 areas. One of them is “Security”. Security aims to understand risks and threats in digital environments, to know security measures and to take the reliability and privacy into account, to avoid the risks and threats of physical and psychological health while using digital technologies, to protect themselves and others against possible dangers in digital environments and to protect personal data and privacy in digital environments. In data and information literacy; the expected competencies are listed as comparing, critically evaluating and analyzing information the reliability of the sources of digital content; also analyzing and making critical analysis of the data, information and digital content. Research findings related to the subject increase the importance of these two competences in a strategic way, and especially reveal the need to control the use of the internet at secondary level young people and to direct them to their own education and lives. According to these studies, the problematic sides of the students' relationship with the internet affect their academic success negatively. The project is based on this problem, and as it moves to a more independent stage with the secondary school level, it has identified secondary school students as the primary target group because they have become more confident and more secure internet users. The project will enable target group members to manage and / or develop digital awareness of their problems: (a) Training primarily important teachers (advisors) who will be able to respond to their healthy digital life needs, and (b) raising awareness of themselves and their parents. The specific aspect of the project is that it does not address digital issues on a single level, as in the case of internet addiction. The project approaches the digital problems through a holistic perspective and acts from the health concept. The project, which has been designed as 24 months, consists of a comprehensive research activity that will be carried out with a multi-methodological design to provide support for background information of project products, which is the continuation of the discussion of online security and healthy digital life, which in the first place reveals the project proposal. The second category includes internet and mobile communication technologies that may be a source of concern and their production related to the efforts to overcome these problems positively and their usage and dissemination activities. The final phase is complementary and includes the set of activities for disseminating the project on the sectoral and geographical axis.
Founded initially as Kayseri University in 1978, Erciyes University today serves with 19 Faculties, 7 Institutes, 1 High School, 2 Vocational Schools, 39 Research Centers, nearly 65,000 students and approximately 2300 academic staff. 160 universities from Turkey have been involved in at least one of the overall rankings in 10 different world rankings published in 2017. These sorting systems are Webometrics, SCIMago, US News and World Report, QS, THE, Leiden (CWTS), CWUR, RUR, ARWU and URAP. According to a study conducted by URAP, 17 universities in Turkey have been ranked by at least 6 out of 10 institutions which carried out the rankings worldwide. According to the results, Erciyes University was ranked 9th among the universities in Turkey by taking part in 8 ranking systems. In 2016, Erciyes University was ranked in 6 ranking systems. 22 universities from Turkey have been among the best universities in Asia in the ranking of Asia 2018 which is conducted with the corporate data for 2016. According to these results, ERÜ recorded a significant achievement by being listed in the best 201-250; it was listed as 12th in Turkey universities, and recorded as 8th among the state universities. Erciyes University was also named as Research University by the Council of Higher Education and it was among the top 10 universities of Turkey.
The University of Cologne is one of the largest universities in Germany, with nearly 45,000 students in six faculties and nearly 500 professors. It is also the largest teacher education institution in Europe with over 10,000 students currently enrolled in teacher education. In addition, the university offers educational opportunities for students who will work in educational settings outside schools. At the same time, the university is continuously participating in numerous national and international research projects. E-Learning is one of the flagship of the university.
Barcelona University has been the leading center of education, science and critical thinking since it was founded in 1450. The University of Barcelona, which has gained considerable recognition both in and outside of Spain with its quality of education and research, successfully combines its obligation to serve the local community and the country's interests with its distinctive, dynamic, constructive and humanistic character that penetrates the daily activities of the institution. More than 64,000 students are enrolled in the six campuses of Barcelona University each year. More than 20 million euros have been provided to the University for 61 research projects from the European Commission Horizon 2020.
Order and security services carried out by Kayseri Provincial Directorate of Security are one of the leading public services in terms of maintaining public life in peace and order. In order to increase the efficiency and quality of this service, which is carried out within the framework of professional and technological approaches, projects are carried out by the relevant units with a scientific sub-structure, a defined goal and the results that need to be achieved. One of the critical departments operating within the organization is the Department of Cybercrime. Along with changing and developing technology, crimes have been started to be processed through information systems. Since 2012, it has been serving with expertise personnel in order to prevent crime from using information systems. At the same time, it has been designated as the Regional Center for Forensic Information Services; it operates in Yozgat, Sivas, Nevsehir and Kırşehir. It investigates and perpetuates the evidences in digital materials sent from judicial and security units of these provinces.
Internet and mobile communication technologies, which determine the individual lifestyles of children, are included not only with their positive and beneficial aspects but also with many inaccurate and useless aspects. Digital technologies are an irreversible fact of our lives, but while maximizing access to these benefits, the goal of minimizing risks has become one of the most significant problems of the institutions, organizations, and families in contact with the children's world. This study, in which on-line risks are compiled, has been put forward as the product of an effort to eliminate the problems identified. Focus group studies were conducted to determine the views of the members of the school community on the possible risks of interaction with the internet and mobile communication technologies. The study consists of 10 secondary schools representing 3 different socioeconomic levels in Kayseri province. In this context, 3 focus group interviews were conducted with 10 focus groups, each consisting of 1 guidance teacher, 1 parent and 1 student from each school. According to the school guidance counselors, the risks faced by the students are mainly because the time spent on the internet and mobile communication technologies in daily life are quite high and lacking qualifications. According to parents, the most important risk to their children are excessive time spent on the internet, game addiction, digital lifestyle overcoming cultural values, and negatively affecting education processes. Parents assess this lifestyle as a malignant process and feel forced about it and desperate. Parents and even guidance counselors who have problems with safe internet do not even know what to do about this issue. The children think that they should be left to their own time and content with these devices. These problems posed by digital life are not only children's or parents' but also the main problems of the whole society. In particular, to seek and implement ways of dealing with this problem; it is the primary duty for educational institutions, non-governmental organizations and the family and child-related units of the state and it is urgently necessary to concentrate the energy of the institution on this field.For detailed information, see: Yeni Medya Çağında Popüler Dijital Sorunlar, (Hakan AYDIN, Fikret YAZICI ed.) Nobel Yayınları, Ankara: 2020.
Privacy is one of the most controversial concepts in social sciences. One of the reasons why it is difficult to draw boundaries is to change individual and social forms of understanding of the concept. First of all, the most important element that defines the understanding of privacy is how human beings make sense of their own existence. Because his belief shapes the way human makes sense of his own existence and his relationship with the universe in which he resides. On the other hand, belief directly affects the ways of perception and interpretation, actions and interaction and material production. With an example, this argument can be explained as follows. What privacy is expressly determined by divine law for a person who considers himself to be a Muslim. The haram concept, which derives from the same root as privacy (mahram), determines all areas which Allah has made untouchable and prohibited. Hence haram/harem in Islam refers to areas that need to be protected and respected. Within this framework, individual and social relationships aspects are understood and interpreted. As a consequence, other modes of behavior and material forms of production and organization, at the same time, occur. It can be stated in this context that differences of faith in the world will explicitly elevate different understandings of privacy.
Furthermore, the differentiation of socio-cultural life according to various elements of social change in different contexts of time and space also shows that the meanings of the concept of privacy can change. In this case, privacy is one of the most important aspects of human life, but it must articulate its meaning and limits as a concept that varies on different levels. While it is one of the most fundamental aspects of human nature, as a natural result of rational organization of social life, especially modern processes have brought the concept of privacy to the agenda of social sciences debates. The transition from traditional human perception to an autonomous/independent and absolute individual perpetrator that is significant in the relationship between God and human, the constituent elements of faith, religious institutions and the symbols of the processes of secularization of social life, such as those identified as elements of the private sphere, demanded that privacy be subject to new assessments. In this context, the problems of privacy and social reflection can be discussed in many ways, which in modern times can be increased from politics to economy, law to religion, and technology. However, the privacy problems that are reflected in almost every social area on a global scale have been brought to the agenda, particularly technological developments and the increase in technical communication opportunities. This has made the issue, along with other social fields, one of the most important topics in the field of communication sciences, and this concern has laid the groundwork for the creation of a wide array of literature.
The study aims to provide a concise structure based on current circumstances and the literature in question for today's privacy problems, along with the concept of privacy. Nonetheless, given the scope of the relevant literature and the limitations of the research, there is an apparent need to address the issue within a particular context. For this purpose, the privacy was defined in the first place and clarified its simple dimensions. The 'spectacle' and 'surveillance' concepts were subsequently dealt with within the context of their privacy relationship, as they provide insight into the cultural background of modernity and mass communication, which is the theoretical basis for an important part of the current privacy problems. Eventually, the privacy problems of today were addressed within the context of the basic dimensions of privacy and general recommendations were given for improving digital awareness in the face of these issues. The study can be regarded as a concise effort in these aspects focused on the framework of the literature review.
Internet and digital technology are quite new concepts in human history. These technological developments have become widespread throughout the world in a very short period of time and have had an indirect and direct impact on human and social life in many cultural, economic, political and social fields. Especially, the speed and possibilities of internet technology have increased day by day. Thanks to wireless / mobile data transmission, some spatial and temporal limitations of internet access have been eliminated. As of 2019, one out of every two people in the world is an internet user. An environment with such intensive data flow is inevitably shaped as an area of hegemony and struggle. At this point, governments, private companies and individuals are present in this area both in the context of defense and attack. Today, everyone, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, educational institutions, technology firms and the media, draw attention to the safe use of technology, especially the internet, but still face problems both on an individual and a mass scale.
Today, as well as different methods of cybercrime, the reasons, and targets of these crimes, are diversified. Turhan (2006) lists these methods as follows: Trojan horse, chameleon, masquerading, logic bombs, scavenging, eavesdropping, data diddling, salami techniques, super zapping, network worms, computer viruses, spam and phishing. The use of these cybercrime methods alone or together may harm the targeted individuals and organizations. In addition, a remarkable situation arises that these crimes committed under the name of computer piracy are glorified by popular cultural products such as cinema, TV series and internet blogs. The characters and their stories, which solve mysterious, intelligent, digital problems by infiltrating or hacking into other systems, create a role model effect on the young generation and create the perception that the actions to be taken in this field may also be unpunished. The fact that such crimes are committed independently of time and space, deficiencies in precautions and low awareness in this area are the main problems faced.
The aim of this study is to examine the content that is shared on YouTube, a video sharing platform, within the scope of threats to cybersecurity and the measures that can be taken against these threats. In this context, it is aimed to systematically classify the videos about cybersecurity and reveal the content features. In this respect, the answers to the research questions listed below were sought.
1. What is the length and viewing rate of shared videos about cybersecurity?
2. What issues are highlighted in the cybersecurity videos?
3. What is the purpose of sharing videos about cybersecurity?
4. What content is there to raise awareness of cybersecurity threats on an individual basis in shared videos?
5. What are the formal features of cybersecurity videos?
In the study, in order to find answers to research questions, cybersecurity videos shared between 2017-2019 are analyzed by the content analysis method. All the cybersecurity videos on the YouTube platform constitute the universe of this study. In this context, a total of 370 videos uploaded to the platform between January 2017-September 2019 were analyzed by using a purposive sampling technique.
The creation of a classification (category) system in content analysis is the first and most important step in transforming research questions into a systematic analysis method. In this process, cybersecurity videos were scanned on the YouTube platform to determine the classification system. The first part of the designated category system is related to the length of the videos, view rate and the information about who they are sharing. The second section covers the purpose of creating cybersecurity videos and what issues are prioritized. In the last part, the content and formal characteristics of the videos are examined.
Cybersecurity is a concept whose importance is better understood every year at this age. The study in connection with the issue, titled Cyber Security, it was determined that video shares had increased over the years. When the frequency of sharing the videos subject to the research by years is examined, it is seen that the highest share was made in 2019 with a rate of 46.5%. Considering the duration of the videos, another interesting aspect is that, although they focus on a technical issue, the most watching takes place in short-term videos such as 1-3 minutes. This shows that the content that can be consumed quickly (concise) can appeal to a wider audience.
Another remarkable issue that emerged in the study is that while the number of content published by official institutions in order to raise awareness about cybersecurity is low, the content (mostly about hacking) published by individual accounts is watched at a very high rate. This finding shows us that the official institutions related to the issue are not sufficiently effective in this medium. Generally speaking, the main issues of the official institutions and organizations were cybersecurity career, cyber defense and national security strategies for young people. In the YouTube accounts of media organizations, almost all of the content shared is in the form of television news and focuses on cybersecurity threats, national security and cyber defense strategies. What's more, cyber-attacks at national and international levels and security risks are at the forefront of shared content. The least attention is given to individual cybersecurity risks and the precautions to be taken. In this regard, it is seen that more than half of the video-sharing on cybersecurity does not address any issues aimed at raising individual awareness.
As a result, scientific research and sectoral practices show that in addition to all technical solutions to corporate threats or cyber-attacks, not enough measures are taken on the human factor which is considered as the weakest link of cybersecurity. Therefore, this vulnerability caused by human factors needs to be solved through awareness studies and training in this field. One of the most important steps to be taken in this area is to expand the projects such as “Secure Internet Center” (see Figure 3) established within the body of BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority) and to reflect the studies to all segments of the society. However, since the problem is very comprehensive and layered, it should not be expected to assume the full responsibility of only one state institution. Starting from the primary education process under the coordination of the Ministry of National Education, digital literacy education should be added to the curriculum immediately. Informative content and public service announcement to be published in traditional media, efforts should be made to create mass awareness through posters, articles and news that will be prepared in a simple and understandable manner. As another suggestion, campaigns should be organized with the participation of people such as artists and athletes that are recognized by the society and can be role models especially for the youth, and promotional activities should be carried out for the problems that may be encountered in the cyber world. In the event that such studies are implemented effectively, the awareness of end-users will be increased and they will be able to act more safely in the cyber world by taking their own measures.
Knowledge is seen as a concept that guides the life of human beings throughout the ages and has been defined many times in the intellectual sense. Uçak (2010, p. 707) underlines the fact that there has not been a complete consensus on the meaning of the word “knowledge”, which is a very old concept. According to him, different phenomena, especially over the last 50 years, are described as “knowledge.” This causes the word to have different meanings. Topdemir (2009, p. 120) addresses the importance of historical and social conditions in explaining the cause of different approaches to the concept of knowledge. Each definition bears the terms of the period in which it was made. The Turkish Language Institution (2019) defines knowledge as “the whole of facts, truths, and principles that the human mind can reach”, “the truth obtained through learning, research or observation” and “the product of a thought that arises as a result of the work of human intelligence”. It is possible to say that these definitions involve individual-oriented conceptualizations. Popper (1998, p. 55) takes a philosophical approach and says that some questions should be asked about the definition of knowledge. “How to obtain knowledge?', 'What are the sources of knowledge?', 'Do personal experiences affect the formation of knowledge?'' and 'How to be sure of the accuracy of knowledge?' such questions are questions that must be answered within the logic of knowledge.
The opportunities offered by communication technologies play an important role in the digitization of information. Erdoğan and Alemdar (2002, p. 514), they describe Information Age societies as societies connected by complex electronic information and communication networks. The importance of the service sector and the intensive use of communication technologies stand out as structural features of Information Age societies (Ispir, 2008, p. 8). It is seen that developed countries attach great importance to the knowledge economy. Especially since the beginning of the 1990s, the integration of the internet into public life has changed the fate of information and led to the beginning of an era called the information age, the age of information or the digital age (Bozkurt, 2014, p. 513).
The distinguishing feature of life in today's technology-driven society is describes as not the central importance of knowledge and information, but the application of this knowledge and information to information production, information processing/transmitting devices, and creating a chain between the innovation and use of innovation which feed each other (Castells, 2008, p. 40). Rogers (1995) draws attention to the importance of the emerging innovations being adopted by the individuals of society with his ''Theory of the Spread of Innovations'. The spread of innovations essentially refers to the spread of social ideas through communication channels. According to this theory, five different stages follow each other. These are the stages of knowledge, persuasion, decision, acceptance, and approval. In the first stage, individuals learn about the innovation and functions they encounter. In the second phase, the individual is now interested in innovation. He begins to develop attitudes by evaluating the advantages and disadvantages that innovation will provide to him. In the third stage, the individual uses innovation. Gain additional information about the innovation. Thus it accepts innovation or decides to reject it. The fourth stage comes into play when the individual decides to adapt to innovation. It is now entering into a more in-depth review of innovation. In the final stage, the individual has made his decision about innovation and begins to make an effort to strengthen his decision. In particular, he expects his decision to be approved by others. According to Ispir (2008, p. 4), the prerequisite for the use of technological innovation is the decision stage. Individuals' personal perception, attitudes and requirements for the use of innovation appear as variables for the use of an innovation.
It is not the right approach to evaluate these changes, which have brought the communication process to a different point as independently and apart from each other. According to this, it is possible to talk about a new formation that reshapes production and social organization in relation to new communication systems. It is possible to say that this impressive transformation in the field of communication not only redefined the phenomenon of communication but also changed the whole society from production systems to economic relations. (Kara, 2013, p. 34). In this context, when we look at recent studies on information society, it is seen that the concept of “network” at the forefront (Değerli, 2014, p. 63).
The development in the design and software technologies provided by Web 2.0 has led to the transformation of virtual communities and the “social networks” that these communities communicate through computers. With the help of social networks, the hierarchical structure in the distribution of information has disappeared and more equal sharing of information has emerged through social networks. It is possible for individuals to create digital identities in online settings and to represent themselves in virtual settings. This new situation has created a different paradigm on the socialization of individuals (Sucu, 2016, p. 60; Bozkurt, 2014, p. 515).
With the introduction of information-communication technologies and social media into public life, the concept of “correct information” has started to be discussed. In today's knowledge “what criteria should be determined the meaning and value of truth?” the question has become important. Külcü (2017, p. 82), describes accurate information as integrity, validity, reliability, authenticity is guaranteed recorded data. However, the trust in information sources can be pushed to the second plan because of the information pollution in social networks, it becomes unclear where the truth is or who is defending the truth. ‘The Pew Research Center’, which studies journalism and media research in the United States, found that on average 67% of adults use social media to get news.
In the digital age, communication tools have transformed information and news content. New network-oriented areas related to the preparation and access of information bring their own diseases in the process. Many digital problems, such as excessive internet use, cyberbullying, cybersecurity, privacy violation, online gambling, online sexual exploitation, which are constantly being discussed today, are waiting to be solved as the main digital problems of the network community. Verification of false news and information is seen as big and worrying as these problems. Media usage training has great importance against violations that affect individuals from all parts of society and manipulate information, especially school-age children. Digital problems should be approached with a holistic approach that improves the critical point of view. It is crucial that digital literacy skills are transferred dynamically to individuals through lifelong content.
The fact that mobile phones have become smart and able to connect to the Internet, besides the platforms already used extensively on the computer in the second web era such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, and in addition to the above apps, the addition of platforms heavily used on mobile devices such as Instagram and WhatsApp is now is a sign that the era of applications, not web sites, has begun. Users do not need to sit at a computer to be able to use the Internet. With smart mobile phones, the whole world is now within reach of the user's hands.
This has led to new discussion topics such as (Shotton, 1989; Griffiths, 2000; Shaffer, et al., 2000) “technology addiction” (Kakabadse, et al., 2009) “problematic mobile phone use”, (Khan, 2008) “excessive messaging”, (Ming, et al., 2006) “internet addiction”, (Griffiths, 1999) “excessive internet use”, (Cabral, 2011) “social media addiction”, and even “Instagram addiction” just as an app (Kırcaburun & Griffiths/b, 2018), being opened for the academic community, which is already debating whether users who spend hours on a computer are addicted.
In this research, what causes the excessive use of the Internet, whether it is an addiction, the criteria of addiction, the problems caused by the excessive use of the Internet and the ways to cope with these problems have been examined within the scope of the studies in the literature, and these were tried to be determined with a descriptive study.
When viewed from a broad perspective, it is possible to say that some behavioral addictions such as game addiction, gambling addiction or porn addiction are already addictions, that these behaviors are not new addictions, and that the existing addictions are continued through a new medium (Erden & Hatun, 2015, p. 55; Ögel, 2017, p. 102; Davis, 2001; Griffiths, 2000). The Internet is not a behavior, but a tool that allows these behaviors to be performed. Addicts are not addicted to the internet, but to gambling, gaming or sex. Therefore, it would not be unreasonable to say that the opportunities provided by the Internet rather than the Internet itself are addictive. However, there is an important point to note here. The Internet is a tool, not an addictive behavior, but it should also be noted that it is a tool that brings these behavioral addictions as close to as a hand can reach, makes them independent of time and space, more easily accessible with almost no effort, and makes the options almost infinite.
Online games, online gambling, online sex, online shopping, online tracking, and online chat… It is possible to say that most of the behavioral addictions can be satisfied over the Internet, so the Internet is over-used, and therefore there is a direct relationship between Internet addiction and excessive Internet use. It is also possible to say that with the emergence of Internet technologies new habits have emerged and become behavioral addictions.
The study most frequently taken as a reference to the diagnosis of Internet addiction is Young's 'Internet Addiction: The Emergence of a New Clinical Disorder'. Young, based on the gambling addiction diagnosis and criteria included in the DSM-IV, has identified an Internet addiction diagnosis based on eight criteria (1998). As mentioned above, there are many useful aspects of internet use that make life easier. However, in the case of excessive use, the user is likely to encounter many physiological, academic, sociological problems, and particularly psychological problems.
Since the addiction resulting from excessive use of the Internet being seen as a behavioral disorder, both families have sought a treatment for their children, and adults have sought a treatment because they have wanted to continue their lives by getting rid of their problems, and the experts working on this subject, especially clinicians, have put forward various ways of treatment. Although these pathways focus mainly on cognitive-behavioral therapy (psychotherapy), pharmacological therapy (pharmacotherapy) methods are also suggested (Arısoy, 2009, p. 60).
The method often used in the treatment of internet addiction is the cognitive-behavioral approach. In the cognitive-behavioral approach, controlled use is recommended instead of suppression of emotions (Young, 2007; Rooij, et al, 2012, Erden & Hatun, 2015). Young's eight-item treatment strategies are used extensively in this approach.
Excessive use of the Internet, which is one of the most important factors of Internet addiction, should be prevented by families and controlled access should be provided at the early age of childhood.
In an increasingly digitized life, children should be taught that there is life outside the Internet, they should be encouraged to play sports, and it should be ensured that they acquire hobbies. Children should not be left alone with technological devices and be taken care of closely; they should not be left completely free, but families should also not go too far establishing rules. Parents should set an example for their children in the first place. Information campaigns regarding the use of the Internet should be conducted in schools (Calaso & Escario, 2018).
As a result of the study, while the number of studies carried out on Far Eastern countries, in particular, draws attention, it is noteworthy that the number of current studies, in particular, is not sufficient in a country such as Turkey where the risk of internet addiction is very high. Furthermore, the majority of the studies were quantitative studies containing statistical data. However, it is essential to have qualitative studies that explain a human behavior disorder such as internet addiction in qualitative detail rather than in figures, but the lack of such studies is quite felt in the literature. It is seen that most of the studies are conducted from the perspective of health sciences due to the nature of the subject. In addition, it is thought that studies addressing the psychological, sociological and spiritual dimensions of internet addiction from the perspective of social sciences should also be carried out. Today, while a new platform is emerging on the Internet, a new networking site on social media and a new app on smartphones every moment, excessive Internet use and the resulting internet addiction have become major problems for all societies of the world accessing the Internet, from children to adults, and this clearly progresses towards becoming the biggest problem of the near future.
Self-harm behavior, which is one of the important problems of many countries in the world, especially in developed countries, is found especially in adolescents and girls. This behavior, which is described as a public health problem, is defined as a disorder caused by mental disorders. However, the behavior that has emerged as damage to body organs and eating problems has been started to be applied in a different platform as the developing digital technology transforms the media. The lack of control over the shared posts, distribution and access of the new media, the lack of a serious restriction on the access of children to harmful content, makes the new media attractive for the children who perform the behavior. Moreover, experiences related to this type of behavior are constantly transmitted through social sharing sites and other sites without being limited by time and space constraints. It offers comfort for young people who are self-injuring or trying to achieve idealized body sizes, watching videos about self-mutilation through digital media, sharing images, reflecting on their experiences, communicating with people like themselves, learning different forms of self-harming, and learning about emergency treatment approaches. Besides, they tend to reinforce the behavior through comments or posts shared on the sites that they follow through new media.
Self-harm behavior is not something new and it is a general and widespread problem of all societies around the world. In this sense, when the researches on the subject are studied in general, it is seen that the data of the research, conducted in many countries about how adolescents use the new media especially, are evaluated with meta-analysis method. In this research; the effect of digital field on self-harm behavior is taken into consideration in two ways: 1) in terms of the role of shared videos, images, comments, and other sharing in damaging body organs 2) Anorexia neurosis and Bulimia neurosis eating disorders are present in the digital environment and anti-currents are shared to support adolescents with sharing disorders.
Within the context of the report, comparisons were made through social media, other social networking sites and online games, in line with the research described above. What is noteworthy in this study is that self-harm behavior in online games is given as a stage of suicidal behavior. The findings of social media and other sharing sites can be listed as normalization of behavior, increase in popularity in societies, acting as a group by socializing among themselves and sharing their experiences as reinforcing elements within these social groups.
Adolescents that displayed actions that were treated as medical cases were measured in terms of psychological and physical harm, psychological causes of such damage, contact with the social environment, and factors that triggered behavior when new media were not widely available. However, the issue became more widely discussed after the digital media became widespread. The act has become globally debated with the digitalization of behavior, and adolescents who only interact with their environment continue to socialize with adolescents in other countries who perform the same act with digitalization and continue to act in group unity. In this case, treatment methods became more difficult and uncontrolled and comfortable access led to reinforcement and adoption of adolescent behavior.
This study is important to reveal the definition, causes, and types of self-harm behavior and to explain the effects of digital environments through research on this behavior. However, as there are very few studies on this topic in our country, this research is important both in terms of bringing together international literature and also in terms of bringing the issue into the discussion in the field of communication sciences apart from the current self-harm-related studies of clinical origin. The goal of this study is to reveal that self-harm behavior is growing more rapidly with the influence of new media particularly among children in adolescence and is aimed at normalizing the conduct of eating disorders with research data in particular.
In the application part of the study, the opinions of experts were taken about the definition of the behavior discussed in the theoretical part, the causes, effects and treatment methods as well as the effects of new media tools on self-harm behavior, the state of reality perception on self-injurious adolescents, the effects of digital media on behavior and solutions. During the interviews, it was mentioned that the digital environment is a suitable field for reinforcing the behavior and finding role models based on the clinical interviews and that it causes problems such as Facebook depression, rupture and all difficulties. It has been reported that adolescent individuals' perception of unrealized reality has been hampered by the processes that result from negative stimulation of impulsive situations in digital environments. Experts also emphasized that the digital environment is the realm of self-harm, self-comparison, the power and courage to perform and the ideal of behavior.
Sexual exploitation refers to the action of transforming an individual into a sexual object/commodity and making various profits from this situation. The main purposes of sexual exploitation are to provide monetary or different benefits from the sexual exploitation of another and to maintain the continuity of these benefits.
Sexual abuse usually involves the abuse of and sexually explicit activities with vulnerable individuals, especially children, as a sexual object and all sexual activities that are not seen acceptable by the society, which may extend to force sexual intercourse. Therefore, in the literature, sexual exploitation, unlike sexual abuse, which is misused interchangeably, includes in a more general sense, crimes of prostitution, pornography, the use of obscenity for commercial purposes, and the use of sexuality to promote the use of individuals for sexual purposes.
These visible forms of sexual exploitation stemming from various reasons have now gained a new dimension with digitalization. The widespread use of internet technology, the fact that any control mechanism on the internet cannot operate functionally, that everyone is a content producer on the internet and that the internet includes accessibility, affordability and anonymity have brought along digitalization of sexual exploitation.
Making individuals vulnerable to sexual exploitation, with the factors such as negative social acceptance, harmful customs, and traditions, discrimination, irresponsible sexual behaviors and myths, conflict situations, consumer-oriented living, digital life becoming a determinant in everyday life and cyberspace rendering crime easier and opening space for potential criminals has increased sexual exploitation and caused the forms of sexual exploitation to change shape.
Digitalization of sexual exploitation refers to the realization of acts of online sexual exploitation/offline sexual exploitation in a computer environment, in other words, the use of digital communication tools such as computers and the Internet as a means/channel of acts of sexual exploitation. This includes the use of any digital technology in actions that result in sexual exploitation, which leads to sexual exploitation of the individual or in producing, purchasing, selling, keeping, distributing and conveying images of sexual exploitation or other material. In this respect, the digitalization of sexual exploitation covers all processes such as the production, purchase, sale, possession, and conveyance of material.
One of the most dangerous aspects of the digitalization of sexual exploitation is that it cracks the door open to sexual abuse. While other acts of abuse are partially confined to specific areas and actions, sexual abuse in online environments has a more widespread appearance, involving different forms. At the same time, online sexual exploitation can be seen as a preparative phase of the acts of exploitation that are carried out outside of digital life. Abusers and exploiters are able to pave the way for an adult or child to commit a sexual crime, in particular through virtual environments, online conversations, friendships on virtual platforms.
In this respect, the realization of the acts of sexual exploitation in the internet environment, which determines the daily life practices significantly and of which the number of users increasing day by day and the digitalization of the acts of sexual exploitation in this direction, has become an important problem concerning the whole society. Therefore, in this study along with the problems mentioned above, the digitalizing aspects of sexual exploitation, in essence, are discussed.
There are many studies in the literature dealing with the issue of sexual exploitation. But these studies have approached sexual exploitation from the perspective of law, sociology, psychology, forensic medicine, and educational disciplines. Besides, these studies focused on the issue of sexual abuse in general and the significance and extent of sexual exploitation were not examined inclusively. And the media elements in the construction of sexual exploitation have not been addressed from the perspective of communication.
This field of study also needs a communicative perspective, as the media, especially new media environments, is a mechanism that encompasses and reproduces sexual exploitation and other problems that threaten a healthy digital life. In this context, the main purpose of the study is to comprehensively address the issue of sexual exploitation and to evaluate the media elements in the construction of this problem. In particular, bringing into question the problem areas such as the digitalization of acts of sexual exploitation from the perspective of communication and media constitutes the primary importance and purpose of the study.
In this respect, a conceptual framework has been drawn primarily in the study, which was designed with a theoretical perspective and for the purpose of establishment of description and contextual relationship. The concept of sexual exploitation was defined in order to form the conceptual framework and the media products that are causing/may cause sexual exploitation were touched upon. The contextual relationship was established and the problems caused by the narratives that the traditional media has constructed on sexuality and body for commercial purposes were conveyed.
In this section titled digitalizing appearances of sexual exploitation, the role of the digital communication tools in sexual exploitation is emphasized by touching upon the transformed form of discourses produced in traditional media in the new media. Digital forms of sexual exploitation such as exposure of individuals to harmful content related to sexuality in online environments, the production, distribution of sexual exploitation materials and the presentation of pornographic, sexually explicit images in public places, messaging/chatting with sexual content (sexting), containing content intended to promote sexual abuse (virtual grooming), blackmailing, threatening, etc. of images of abuse and sex offenses through the internet (sextortion), are explained comprehensively.
In the conclusion part, evaluations regarding the actions to be taken against digitalized acts of sexual exploitation and the creation of preventive education and communication policies in order to solve this problem are given.
The speed of technological transformation has brought along a lot of practical changes however it has also significantly affected social dynamics. Not only the speed of access to information saved the processing and sharing of knowledge from the limitations of space and time to a certain extent, but it has also made the world a small village. Almost all the developments in this small village started to reach all the members of the society through online fields in a very short time. While technology molds every area of life with considerable speed and magnitude, it has left effective traces in communication methods and time-consuming communication processes have evolved into second-hand actions. Approximately 15-20 years ago, new communication technologies, which brought media that were not mentioned in our daily lives, brought many questions and problem areas that continue to be the subject of the studies of today's academics. The rapid development and widespread use of communication technologies have also brought new dimensions to numerous usual problems, and it has become inevitable to identify these problems and develop solution actions accordingly. The act of “bullying” as an example of this situation has been affected by this rapid change and evolved into “cyberbullying” by means of space and methods that do not conform to the traditional definition of peer bullying”.
The absence of a special age group affected by cyberbullying actions makes it necessary to investigate a problem that differs significantly from traditional “schoolyard” bullying. According to the data released by the Turkey Statistics Institution, internet access in Turkey was found to be 6 years of age (TÜİK, 2013). From this point of view, observing cyberbullying among secondary school students, investigating the frequency and discussing their effects constitute an important field of study. Peker (2015) in his study investigating the risk factors of secondary school students being affected by cyberbullying acts, 37% of the students were not involved in cyberbullying, 17% were exposed to cyberbullying, 10.5% of them were in cyberbullying group and 35% of students were both cyberbully and victim. According to Akça (2015), 17% of the students are cyber victims and 14.5% are in the cyberbullying group.
It has been considered beneficial to determine what kind of actions (eg e-mail, chat rooms, social media, etc.) and what kind of behaviors can be called cyberbullying. First, a discussion of behaviors that could be considered as cyberbullying, regardless of the method by which they were made, has been discussed. Next, the most commonly used cyberbullying behaviors were examined.
Although there are different personality traits that can be mutually shared by cyberbullying individuals, it is probably not possible to recognize cyberbullying with a “single“ profile. Some cyberbullies are mistakenly involved in electronic violence, unaware that their action is actually cyberbullying”, especially when they respond to negative comments that are sent to them in emails or as instant messages. However, other individuals engaging in cyberbullying hurt and humiliate their victims. Nevertheless, some children and young people who are acting as cyberbullies think it would be fun to send messages containing threats or insults to someone. The purpose of the acts of bullies in this group is to alleviate their own problems rather than to think about the effects of their behavior on their victims.
Academic studies conducted in our country and in many countries all over the world show that; cyberbullying is a behavioral process in which both the victim and the bully can constantly change roles and there are always spectators. The cyberbullying, which differs from traditional bullying in this aspect, has many sociological and psychological factors.
Findings from various academic studies indicate that internet users of all age groups may be the victims of cyberbullying. One of the most effective methods of dealing with cyberbullying and potential risks that are accepted worldwide as one of the cybercrime is undoubtedly education activities covering all internet users. Since educational activities aimed at acquiring conscious internet use practices can yield far more successful results than prohibiting or restrictive approaches; education regarding safe Internet use should be continued at all levels of education.
“Media Literacy” activities for Internet users of all ages in many educational environments; activities such as effective Internet use, content production and sharing, reading and interpreting online content are crucial in preventing online risks such as cyberbullying. These skills which have begun to be taught at all levels of education in schools located in Turkey, as well as teaching online use techniques; will also contribute to their self-awareness in the fight against cyberbullying by adopting online ethical rules.
Internet and mobile communication technologies, which determine the individual lifestyles of children, are included not only with their positive and beneficial aspects, but also with many inaccurate and useless aspects. Digital technologies are an irreversible fact of our lives, but while maximizing access to these benefits, the goal of minimizing risks has become one of the most significant problems of the institutions, organizations and families in contact with the children's world. This study, in which on-line risks are compiled, has been put forward as the product of an effort to eliminate the problems identified. Focus group studies were conducted to determine the views of the members of the school community on the possible risks of interaction with internet and mobile communication technologies. The study consists of 10 secondary schools representing 3 different socioeconomic levels in Kayseri province. In this context, 3 focus group interviews were conducted with 10 focus groups, each consisting of 1 guidance teacher, 1 parent and 1 student from each school. According to the school guidance counselors, the risks faced by the students are mainly due to the fact that the time spent in internet and mobile communication technologies in daily life is quite high and lacking qualifications. According to parents, the most important risk to their children are excessive time spent on the internet, game addiction, digital lifestyle overcoming cultural values, and negatively affecting education processes. Parents assess this lifestyle as a malignant process and feel forced about it and desperate. Parents and even guidance counselors who have problems with safe internet do not even know what to do about this issue .The children think that they should be left to their own time and content with these devices .These problems posed by digital life are not only children's or parents' but also the main problems of the whole society .In particular, to seek and implement ways of dealing with this problem; it is the primary duty for educational institutions, non-governmental organizations and the family and child related units of the state and it is urgently necessary to concentrate the energy of the institution on this field.
Keywords: Internet and Mobile Communication Technologies, Online Opportunities, Members of the School Community.
The development of internet and mobile communication technologies and the increasing speed of use in recent years have led to major changes in education as well as in all areas of life. Thanks to various games, programs and applications, the ability to communicate in the desired time and place, to share information, to differentiate the learning skills and skills brings great opportunities for education. Although many of the students can easily access the internet through mobile technologies at school and outside the school, the focus of the majority of the work on threats is imperative for more work on opportunities. In order to benefit from the opportunities offered by the Internet and mobile communication technologies, it is necessary to be aware of the changing learning styles of the students born and growing in the digital environment, adaptation of the education system to the changing technology, and the knowledge and skills of the teachers and parents to direct the students in the digital world. In this study, the opportunities offered by internet and mobile communication technologies are classified in five areas as entertainment, learning, creativity, socialization and discovery. The main objective is to present the views of the members of the school community on the opportunities offered by the internet and mobile communication technologies. In the establishment of a healthy digital life, teachers, parents and students will be aware of the new skills required by the digital age, to provide background support to relevant policy and curriculum outputs through the creation of panorama of opportunities, and to contribute to the successful implementation of digital transformation-related applications. In order to achieve these objectives, a case study method was used from qualitative research patterns. According to the results obtained from three different focus group studies with 10 guidance teachers, 10 parents and 11 students between March 15-22, 2019; although it is accepted by all group members that technology offers opportunities, it has been determined that guidance teachers and parents find themselves inadequate and do not know exactly what to do, that students try to find themselves by means of online search sites, and that they see themselves more knowledgeable and talented about digital technologies than teachers and parents. Starting with teachers, all school community members receive training on how to capture the opportunities of internet and mobile communication technologies will contribute to a healthy transformation.
Keywords: Internet and Mobile Communication Technologies, Online Opportunities, Members of the School Community.
The purpose of the report is to map opportunities and risks of digital media when used by young people. We do so by shedding light on diverse aspects of the issue thus embedding the use of digital media by young people in a wider landscape.
As explained in the introduction (chapter 1), empirical studies show that digital media are being used to a very large extent by Germany’s young people. This was made possible by impressive technological developments, but also by educational policies that supported the use of digital media in formal, non-formal and informal educational settings. It is only now that politicians have become aware that the use of digital media does have its merits, but may also carry along risks.
Chapter 2 provides a survey of global (OECD), European (European Commission) and German national educational policies on digital media in formal and non-formal education as well as policies advocated by non-government organisations. Pointing out the necessity of lifelong learning, is argued that we live in a digital world and that young people need to learn how to be successful in this world.
In chapter 3, we introduce Antonovsky’s concept of sense of coherence to show that a healthy life is more than a life without health problems. We point out that the European Commission – which for a long time has almost uncritically advocated the use of digital media in educational contexts has at last issued a call for projects that are to explore positive and negative effects the use of digital media might have on young people’s well-being. In chapter 4, we propose theoretical models of communication and we explain that the use of the Internet for communication requires an adaption of these models. Internet communication is no longer a sender – receiver (and vice versa) activity, but an activity that is being moderated by information intermediaries the activities of which might lead to filter bubbles and echo chambers.
In chapter 5, we show how digital media are being used by young people in Germany, referring to results of the JIM 2018 study (JIM = Jugend, Information, Medien = Youth, Information, Media) which was carried out in Germany on 1.200 young people between 12 and 19 years of age. This study gives us a highly differentiated view of how young people use digital media.
As we explain in chapter 6, we believe that the way young people use digital technologies is to a great extent influenced by the families in which they grow up. We therefore explore the role of the family. Based on statistical analyses that we conducted on PISA 2015 data, we were able to show that young people from families with low socio-economic status do indeed use digital technologies in ways that are different from the ways digital technologies are being used by young people from families of high economic status.
Potentials of digital media are at the core of chapter 7. As indicated in many documents, politicians seems to agree that digital technologies have a great potential to support learning processes in formal and non-formal educational settings. It should be pointed out that this may not be the only potential of digital media. Other positive aspects are that digital technologies may also be conducive in helping young people to develop their identity and in providing opportunities for intercultural communication.
However, it has also become clear that using digital media may carry risks for young people. Williams distinguished between three categories on online risks: content, contact and commerce. In chapter 8, we used this classification to give an overview of these risks which include grooming, sextortion, cyber-bullying, excessive internet use, online gaming, fake news and online challenges as well as threats to young people’s privacy.
It is of prime importance to think of strategies to prevent problems that may arise when young people use digital media or to offer help when problems were encountered. As we explain in chapter 9, there are a number of web sites which offer advice and help in these situations. A more general approach to helping young people avoid online risks is to support them to develop their media literacy which would enable them to use digital media in a more mindful way.
In chapter 10, we report on a small study that we conducted with teacher students from Cologne University. They were asked about their ideas concerning the Internet and digital media, point out their possible positive and negative effects when being used by young people, and assess the seriousness of a number of online risks. The list of these risks had been established while the proposal for the project HD-LIFE was being developed.
In chapter 11, results of the report are summarised and discussed. Recommendations of how to prevent and cope with problems arising from using digital media were already discussed in chapter 9, but are summarised again in chapter 11. Problems of empirically establishing relationships between specific uses of digital media and their impact on student’s well-being are discussed. Also, limitations of our empirical study presented in chapter 10 are discussed.
Context and Purpose of the report
Discussing the potentials, virtues and dangers that digital media entails continues to be one of the permanent (and pending) tasks that the educational environment has today, both within the educational centres and universities as well as families and administrations. It seems evident that the diversity of functions that technologies develop in our lives extends beyond the educational sphere, and some of them have aroused some concern in sectors such as security or information.
- Chapter 1 conceptually delineates the main topics of the project and how they are identified and interacted in Spanish latitudes. There are several conclusions on this aspect:
• There is an evident variability of terms related to the main project axies (cyberbulling, Online hate, sexting, grooming, Excessive Internet use, gambling, Authenticating Information, Cybersecurity y Privacy), in the same language, as among several. That’s because in the Spanish context there is a coexistence of multilingual information and documentation to which we have access from a specific cultural, administrative or territorial area.
• The need to address these concepts univocally when it comes to acting in an educational environment.
- Chapter 2 evidences the researches that have been carried out on this subject in our context. The main conclusions on this aspect are:
• The axies with more evidence are Cyberbullying, followed by Excessive Internet Use and Sexting.
• The digital health axies little or nothing explored from the educational field in the Spanish context and, therefore, with great potential for research are Authenticating Information, Cybersecurity, Online Hate and Sexual Exploitation.
• Literature in the Spanish context addresses the axies of digital health from other fields such as business, advertising, legal, health.
• The fact that only 58.66% (n = 105) of the analysed articles contain the word formation, program or prevention can inform of the still recent character of some phenomena.
• Of the three focal points of interest of the project (training, program or prevention), training is the one with the least number of articles of the three (n = 18, n = 53 and n = 64, respectively).
• So far, the research on the 9 axies of digital health seems not very proactive, in an educational point of view. Very few articles make explicit reference to concrete training actions or evidence-based prevention programs. In this sense, although 35.75% of articles contain the term prevention, only 4.5% (n = 8) also contains training and / or program [10.6%, (n = 19)] so that prevention could result in simple recommendations without specific programs or specific training actions for students, teachers or families.
- Chapter 3 analyses the proposals that are carried out from the public and private organisations (at different levels) about the treatment of these issues. A summary of the main ideas as a result of the data analysis is:
• Both public and private organizations make an important effort to offer documents that describe or speak of each of the 9 project's nuclear phenomena. Comparatively, the volume of relative production is mainly focused on public organizations.
• An accumulation of documents about the Cyberbulling axis (or Harassment in the network, n = 24) is identified, being much less the treatment of phenomena such as Grooming (n = 5) or online Hate and discrimination and Sexting with the same results (n = 3).
• It can be said that most of the documents that have been analysed (n = 19) provide a negative view (or no positive comments) about the digital media and the network.
• Most of the analysed documents incorporate orientations of some kind, although more general than specific in all the items (22 vs 18, 24 vs 21, 23 vs 22). However, the assessment is positive because they offer guided work options for different groups. And, chapter 4 reports data on the vision that future professionals on education (teachers and pedagogues) have about how teachers, families and students perceive these topics. The five remarkable results from the questionnaire administrated to future educational professionals are:
• No significant differences were observed in the answers according to the concepts (cyberbullying, diseases / pathologies and treatment of information).
• The profile drawn by means, median and fashion coincides in most questions of the survey.
• The axis that marks differences is the subject on which the questions are focused: teachers, parents or students.
• The perception of parents' concern is 'A lot' for all topics that have been worked on. A higher concern than teachers and students would have.
• The students are not 'at all' prepared to solve the problems that may arise in relation to the topics analysed.
Unlike traditional media channels, new media contents and social networks have emerged as individuals’ new communication preferences. As a result of excessive and unconscious use of these new communication tools, digital diseases such as cyber bullying, cyber security, excessive internet use, violation of privacy, sexual abuse, online hate speech and accuracy of information have started to spread. Individuals from all age groups, especially school age children, seek solutions to these problems brought about by digitalization. At this point, visual media tools have an important functionality to solve existing digital problems. In this context, short films, which are extremely suitable for use as educational material in terms of duration, narrative technique and language, are of particular importance. In this study, the content of educational short films published on the internet about digital problems were examined. Research; it is framed by examining instructional videos about privacy violation, sexual abuse, cyber security, accuracy / reliability of information and excessive internet use. Due to the fact that examining all the videos related to the mentioned subjects will exceed the scope of the study; the two most watched videos related to each title and a total of 10 videos were selected as samples and selected videos were analyzed by content analysis method. In addition, videos were accessed via YouTube using key concepts and evaluated based on instant viewing rates. It was found that the short films examined did not have a professional background and content, that digital problems were equipped with only child-oriented content and that digital problems were framed by abstract concepts.
Keywords: Digital Problems, Short Film, Privacy Violation, Sexual Abuse, Cyber Security, Information Accuracy / Reliability, Excessive Internet Use.